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First report of Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus in The Netherlands
1 Julius Kuehn-Institute, Institute for Epidemiology and Pathogen Diagnostics, Messeweg 11-12, 38106 Braunschweig, Germany
2 The French National Centre for Scientific Research, Institute of Integrative Biology of the Cell (I2BC), Avenue de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif sur Yvette Cedex, France
Received: 28 Mar 2017; Published: 02 May 2017
Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV) is a nanovirus that was first detected in pea crops (Pisum sativum) in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany in 2009 (Grigoras et al., 2010). In 2016, PNYDV was detected countrywide in both Germany and Austria not only on pea but also on faba bean (Vicia faba), vetch (V. sativa) and lentil (Lens culinaris) causing severe yield losses (Gaafar et al., 2016).
During a routine survey of twelve green pea crops in the Province of Flevoland (The Netherlands), plants with virus-like symptoms were noticed (Fig. 1). Symptomatic plant material was pooled from each field and analysed by ELISA for typical pea viruses: Alfalfa mosaic virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, luteo-/poleroviruses, Pea enation mosaic virus (PEMV), potyviruses, and Red clover vein mosaic virus-like carlaviruses, and nanoviruses. PEMV was detected in all fields while luteo-/poleroviruses were found in one field. Two samples each from different pea fields reacted positively using a broad nanovirus monoclonal antibody mixture (Gaafar et al., 2016). The lack of reaction with a monoclonal antibody mixture designed to detect only Faba bean necrotic stunt virus and Faba bean necrotic yellows virus suggested infection with Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus (PNYDV). This was confirmed by PCR using PNYDV-specific primers targeting the eight PNYDV components producing bands of approximately 1 kb (Table 1). All PCR products were cloned using the NEB PCR cloning kit (New England Biolabs, Germany) and at least four clones for each component were sequenced in both directions. The sequences of the eight components of the two Dutch isolates (NL HZ16-186 and NL HZ16-189) had between 96.7 and 99.9% identity with the equivalent PNYDV components of an isolate from Germany and between 96.7 and 99.8% with an Austrian isolate (Table 1). The sequences of the Dutch PNYDV isolates have been deposited in GenBank (KY593279- KY593294).
To our knowledge, this is the first report of PNYDV in The Netherlands. This indicates that nanoviruses are far more spread throughout Europe than previously thought (Grigoras et al., 2014). As PNYDV is aphid-transmitted in a circulative, non-propagative manner, it is expected that more nanovirus diseases will occur in the future as changes in climatic conditions (especially milder winters in Central Europe) favour aphid survival thus facilitating the spread of these viruses (Ziebell, 2017).
The authors are grateful to Ms Kerstin Herz, Ms Angelika Sieg-Müller, Ms Petra Lüddecke, Mr Jonas Hartrick and Ms Petra Bauer for their technical assistance and Dr Wolfgang Maier for assistance with phylogenetic analyses. Y. Gaafar is supported by the German-Egyptian Research Long-Term Scholarship (GERLS) from the Egyptian Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research and the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).
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- Grigoras I, Ginzo AID, Martin DP, Varsani A, Romero J, Mammadov AC, Huseynova IM, Aliyev JA, Kheyr-Pour A, Huss H, Ziebell H, Timchenko T, Vetten HJ, Gronenborn B, 2014. Genome diversity and evidence of recombination and reassortment in nanoviruses from Europe. Journal of General Virology 95, 1178-1191. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.063115-0]
- Grigoras I, Gronenborn B, Vetten HJ, 2010. First report of a nanovirus disease of pea in Germany. Plant Disease 94, 642. [http://dx.doi.org/] [http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-94-5-0642C]
- Ziebell H, 2017. Die Virusepidemie an Leguminosen 2016 - eine Folge des Klimawandels? Journal für Kulturpflanzen 69, 64-8. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1399/JFK.2017.02.09]
To cite this report: Gaafar Y, Timchenko T, Ziebell H, 2017. First report of Pea necrotic yellow dwarf virus in The Netherlands. New Disease Reports 35, 23. [http://dx.doi.org/10.5197/j.2044-0588.2017.035.023]
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